Japanese homes have various amenities that reflect the country’s unique cultural and lifestyle preferences. Some of the most common amenities you may find in Japanese homes include the following:
Common Features and Amenities
- Minimalistic Design: Japanese homes often have a minimalist and clutter-free design, focusing on essential elements and clean lines.
- Zen Elements: Many homes incorporate Zen-inspired design principles like simplicity, balance, and harmony into their layout and decor.
- Natural Light: Japanese architecture often emphasizes the use of natural light through features like shoji screens, sliding doors, and large windows.
- Traditional Japanese-style Tatami Rooms: Traditional Japanese homes often have one or more tatami rooms. Tatami is a type of flooring made from woven straw and covered with rush mats. These rooms are often used for sitting, sleeping, or traditional tea ceremonies.
- Sliding “Pocket” Doors and Open Spaces: The combination of open spaces and sliding doors facilitates a seamless flow between rooms, integrating indoor and outdoor elements.
A genkan, the traditional Japanese entryway or foyer, serves as a transitional space between the exterior and interior of a home. It is where shoes are taken off and stored before entering the main living area. Genkans are designed with functionality, cleanliness, and cultural norms in mind. Some common features and elements you might find in a Japanese-style genkan include the following:
- Shoe Storage: In the genkan, shoe storage is a central feature. It typically includes built-in shelves, cubbies, or racks where outdoor shoes are placed upon entering the home. This practice helps maintain cleanliness and prevents dirt from being tracked into the home.
- Step-Up Design: The genkan is often raised slightly from the rest of the house. This step-up design serves as a symbolic separation between the outside world and the interior living spaces. While this type of feature is practical and looks great, it is often a challenge for people with physical disabilities. For example, it is sometimes necessary to add a wheelchair ramp.
- Slippers: Indoor slippers are often provided in the genkan for residents and guests to wear indoors to keep the rest of the house clean.
- Genkan Mat or Area Rug: A mat or area rug may be placed in the genkan to provide a place to stand or sit while removing shoes and changing into indoor slippers.
- Hooks and Hangers: Hooks or hangers may be provided for coats, umbrellas, and bags. This helps keep personal items organized and easily accessible.
- Decorative Elements: While the genkan is primarily functional, it may also include decorative elements such as a small piece of art, a decorative vase, or a small plant to add a touch of aesthetics.
- Mirrors: A mirror may be placed in the genkan, allowing residents and guests to check their appearance before entering the main living areas.
- Coat Closet: In some homes, the genkan area may include a small coat closet for storing outerwear and seasonal clothing.
- Key Tray: A key tray or small dish may be placed in the genkan for holding keys and other small items.
- Entryway Bench or Seating: An entryway bench or seating may be provided, offering a place to sit while changing shoes or putting on slippers.
- Functional Lighting: Adequate lighting is important in the genkan area to ensure visibility and safety during the transition from outside to inside.
Japanese-style living rooms emphasize simplicity, harmony with nature, and a calm, peaceful atmosphere. Some common features and elements you might find in a Japanese-style living room include the following:
- Tatami Flooring: Traditional Japanese living rooms may feature tatami flooring, which is made from woven straw and covered with rush mats. Tatami adds warmth and a traditional touch to the space.
- Fusuma and Shoji Screens: Sliding doors, known as fusuma, and translucent paper screens, called shoji, are commonly used to divide spaces and allow for flexibility in room layout and lighting.
- Low Furniture: Japanese-style living rooms typically have low furniture pieces such as low tables (chabudai) and floor cushions (zabuton), creating a relaxed and intimate seating arrangement.
- Natural Materials: The use of natural materials such as wood, bamboo, and stone is prevalent in Japanese living rooms, connecting the indoors with the outdoors and promoting a sense of tranquility.
- Built-In Storage: Storage is often built into the architecture of the room, such as alcoves (tokonoma) for displaying art or decorative items, and low cabinets or shelves for storing belongings.
- Minimal Decoration: Decorative elements are kept simple and purposeful. A single piece of art, a vase with fresh flowers, or a scroll painting (kakejiku) might be used to add visual interest.
- Nature-Inspired Decor: Elements from nature, such as bonsai trees, bamboo plants, and natural stone, are commonly incorporated to create a harmonious and serene atmosphere.
- Subdued Color Palette: Japanese living rooms often feature a subdued color palette with earthy tones and muted colors that promote relaxation and balance.
- Floor Seating: Floor seating arrangements using cushions, mats, or traditional zabuton provide a comfortable and informal way to gather and socialize.
- Lanterns and Soft Lighting: Soft and diffused lighting, often provided by lanterns or pendant lights, creates a gentle and inviting ambiance.
- Engawa or Engawa-Style Spaces: Some modern Japanese living rooms incorporate engawa or engawa-style spaces, which are transitional zones between indoor and outdoor areas. These spaces often have a low platform with cushions for seating.
- Tokonoma: A traditional tokonoma alcove for displaying art or decorative items could be updated with a modern twist, such as a digital display screen for showcasing digital art or rotating images.
Japanese kitchens, reflecting the country’s culinary traditions and lifestyle, prioritize efficient and functional design. Some common features and elements you might find in Japanese kitchens include the following:
- Compact Layout: Japanese kitchens often prioritize space efficiency. They are typically compact and well-organized to make the most of the available area. They often include specialized appliances for cooking Japanese dishes.
- Open Shelving: Open shelving or wall-mounted storage is common, allowing easy access to frequently used items such as dishes, utensils, and condiments.
- Minimalistic Design: Japanese kitchens tend to have a clean and minimalist aesthetic with a focus on simplicity and functionality.
- Counter Seating or Bar Area: Some Japanese kitchens include a counter or bar area with stools, providing a space for casual dining or food preparation.
- Multi-Functional Appliances: Many Japanese kitchens are equipped with multi-functional appliances such as rice cookers, microwave ovens, and toaster ovens to accommodate various cooking needs.
- Built-in Cooktops and Ovens: Built-in cooktops and ovens are common in modern Japanese kitchens, helping to save space and maintain a streamlined look.
- Pull-Out Cutting Boards: Pull-out cutting boards are often integrated into the countertop or kitchen island, providing a convenient and hygienic surface for food preparation.
- Small Sink and Dish Rack: Japanese kitchens typically have smaller sinks, reflecting a cultural preference for washing dishes by hand. Dish racks or drainers are often used to air-dry dishes. Even if a dishwasher has been installed, it may never be used. At the very least it will be much smaller than a typical dishwasher found in the United States.
- Multi-Use Storage Containers: Containers for storing rice, grains, and other pantry staples are commonly used. These containers help keep the kitchen organized and visually appealing. Sometimes dedicated storage areas for various types of garbage (e.g., combustible, non-combustible, etc.) are, moreover, built into the kitchen design.
- Ventilation Systems: Given the prevalence of stir-frying and other cooking methods that produce strong odors, ventilation systems or range hoods are often installed to maintain air quality.
- Under-Cabinet Lighting: Under-cabinet lighting is frequently used to provide additional illumination on countertops and workspaces.
- Separation of Functions: In some Japanese kitchens, there is a separation of functions. For example, a separate area may be designated for washing and preparation, while cooking is done on the stovetop or in a built-in oven.
- Slide-Out Pantry: Slide-out pantry units or pull-out shelves are often incorporated to make use of tight spaces and provide easy access to pantry items.
- Japanese Tableware: Many Japanese kitchens feature traditional tableware such as donburi bowls, chopsticks, and ceramic dishes, reflecting the importance of presentation in Japanese cuisine.
- Use of Natural Materials: Japanese kitchens often incorporate natural materials such as wood, bamboo, and stone to create a harmonious and inviting atmosphere.
- Rice Cookers: Given the importance of rice in Japanese cuisine, rice cookers are a staple appliance in many households.
- Backdoor: Especially to facilitate the disposal of garbage, most Japanese homes have a backdoor entrance inside or near the kitchen.
With their serene designs, Japanese-style bedrooms are havens of relaxation and tranquility. Some of the common features and elements you might find in a Japanese-style bedroom include the following:
- Futon Bedding: Futon bedding is a common feature in Japanese-style bedrooms. Futons are traditional mattresses that are placed on tatami flooring for sleeping. During the day, futons are folded and stored to maximize space.
- Tatami Flooring: Traditional Japanese bedrooms often feature tatami flooring, which is made from woven straw and covered with rush mats. Tatami adds a sense of warmth and traditional charm to the space.
- Low Furniture: Japanese-style bedrooms typically have low furniture, including low platform beds or tatami-mat beds (tatami no yosegi), and low tables (shouji) for a minimalist and functional design.
- Sliding Doors and Screens: Sliding doors (fusuma) and translucent paper screens (shoji) are used to create flexible room divisions, allowing for open or private spaces and controlling natural light.
- Minimal Decoration: Decorative elements are often kept to a minimum to create an uncluttered and calming environment. A single piece of art, a small vase with fresh flowers, or a scroll painting (kakejiku) might be used as decoration.
- Built-In Storage: Storage solutions are integrated into the architecture of the room, such as closets, alcoves (tokonoma) for displaying art or decorative items, and built-in shelves or cabinets. Although space is often at a premium, it is becoming more and more common for high-end properties to include a walk-in closet as part of the design of the bedroom.
- Natural Materials: The use of natural materials such as wood, bamboo, and stone is prominent in Japanese-style bedrooms, contributing to a connection with nature.
- Subdued Color Palette: Japanese bedrooms often feature a subdued color palette with neutral and earthy tones that promote a sense of tranquility and relaxation.
- Zen Influence: Zen aesthetics and principles may be incorporated into the design, promoting mindfulness and balance.
- Soft Lighting: Soft and ambient lighting is used to create a gentle and calming atmosphere. This might include floor lamps, pendant lights, or lanterns.
- Engawa or Balcony Access: Some Japanese-style bedrooms have access to an engawa (transitional zone between indoors and outdoors) or a balcony, allowing residents to enjoy fresh air and nature.
- Nature-Inspired Decor: Elements from nature, such as bonsai trees, indoor plants, and natural textures, are commonly integrated to create a harmonious ambiance.
- Texture and Simplicity: Textured fabrics and simple design elements, such as woven textiles and paper lanterns, contribute to the overall aesthetic.
- Privacy and Tranquility: Japanese-style bedrooms are often designed to provide a sense of privacy and tranquility, making them conducive to restful sleep and relaxation.
- Floor Seating Area: Some Japanese-style bedrooms may have a dedicated floor seating area with cushions, creating a comfortable space for meditation or relaxation.
Bath and Bathroom
In Japanese homes, the bathing section, which includes showers, tubs, and changing areas, is distinct from what is commonly termed as the “bathroom” (toilet area) in the U.S.
- Ofuro (deep soaking tub): The centerpiece of many Japanese bathrooms is the ofuro, a deep soaking tub. Typically made of wood, stone, or acrylic, ofuro are designed for full-body immersion, allowing you to relax and soak in hot water. Some even have a built-in television behind a waterproof glass, because Japanese people typically take long baths and some people like to watch their favorite TV show while relaxing in their bath.
- Separate Wet and Dry Areas: Japanese bathrooms often have a clear separation between wet and dry areas. The bathing area is distinct from the toilet area, contributing to cleanliness and functionality.
- Japanese Shower System: Some Japanese bathrooms feature a combination shower and bath area, with a showerhead and faucet near the ofuro. This allows you to rinse off before entering the tub. No matter where you go in Japan, such showers typically deliver very high water pressure, which makes it a pleasure to get clean.
- Stools and Buckets: It is common to have a small stool and bucket in the bathroom for rinsing and cleaning before entering the ofuro. This is in line with the traditional Japanese bathing ritual.
- Natural Materials: Many Japanese bathrooms incorporate natural materials such as wood, bamboo, stone, and pebbles to create a harmonious and spa-like atmosphere.
- Sliding Doors and Screens: Sliding doors (fusuma) or translucent screens (shoji) may be used to partition the bathroom or provide privacy without completely blocking natural light.
- Towel Warmer: Heated towel racks or towel warmers are often installed to provide warm towels after bathing.
- Aromatherapy and Natural Scents: Some Japanese bathrooms incorporate aromatherapy elements, such as essential oils or natural scents, to enhance the relaxing experience.
- Minimalist Design: Japanese bathrooms tend to have a minimalist design with clean lines and simple aesthetics, promoting a sense of calm and tranquility.
- Low Lighting: Soft and ambient lighting, often dimmed, is used to create a soothing ambiance. Wall sconces, pendant lights, or hidden lighting fixtures may be used.
- View to Nature: If possible, Japanese-style bathrooms might be designed to offer a view of nature, such as a garden or outdoor scenery, to create a connection with the outdoors.
- Natural Light: Large windows, skylights, or translucent materials may be used to allow natural light to enter the bathroom, contributing to a sense of spaciousness and serenity.
- Flooring: Bathroom flooring may include natural materials like wood, stone, or tiles with a natural finish. Some bathrooms may even extend tatami flooring into the bathing area for added comfort.
- Compact Storage: Built-in storage solutions, such as cabinets and shelves, are often designed to keep bathroom essentials organized and out of sight. Sometimes these spaces are built into the floor, which is very convenient.
- Washroom Area: Some houses have a separate area with sinks and mirrors for washing hands and face. This is often located near the genkan so that guests can freshen up as they enter. Some even have a defogger in the mirror, similar to what you might find in a hotel.
Japanese-style homes often extend their design principles to the exterior, creating a seamless transition between indoor and outdoor spaces. Some common features that you might find outside a Japanese-style home include the following:
- Engawa: Engawa is a covered transitional space or veranda that wraps around the exterior of the house. It serves as a buffer between indoors and outdoors, allowing residents to enjoy fresh air and views while being protected from the elements.
- Rock Gardens (Karesansui): Japanese rock gardens, also known as karesansui or “dry landscapes,” often feature carefully arranged rocks, gravel, and sometimes moss. These gardens are designed to evoke a sense of calm and contemplation.
- Stone Pathways: Stone pathways may lead from the entrance or genkan to the main house or other outdoor areas. These pathways contribute to the aesthetic appeal and provide a designated route.
- Water Features: Some Japanese-style homes incorporate water features such as ponds, small streams, or fountains. These elements add a soothing and naturalistic touch to the outdoor environment.
- Traditional Lanterns: Stone lanterns, known as tōrō, are a common feature in Japanese gardens. They are often placed along pathways or near water features, providing soft illumination in the evenings.
- Garden Bridges: Arched wooden bridges, known as yatsuhashi, are sometimes used to cross water features or connect different areas of the garden.
- Tea House or Pavilion: Traditional Japanese gardens may include a small tea house (chashitsu) or pavilion for tea ceremonies and quiet contemplation.
- Bamboo Fences: Bamboo fences (yotsume-gaki) or screens are used to define boundaries and provide privacy while maintaining a natural and rustic appearance.
- Outdoor Seating: Japanese-style homes often have outdoor seating areas where residents can relax and enjoy the garden. These seating areas may include benches, cushions, or tatami mats.
- Bonsai Trees: Bonsai, miniature trees cultivated in pots, are a quintessential feature of Japanese gardens and can be placed outdoors to add an artistic element.
- Tsukubai (Stone Basin): A tsukubai is a stone basin used for cleansing hands before entering a tea house or engaging in a tea ceremony. It’s often placed near the entrance or a garden area.
- Privacy Screens: Decorative screens or trellises covered with climbing plants provide privacy and visual interest while maintaining an open and airy feel.
- Natural Landscaping: Japanese gardens often prioritize the use of natural elements such as plants, rocks, and water to create a harmonious and balanced environment.
- Seasonal Plantings: Many Japanese-style gardens feature plants that change with the seasons, creating a dynamic and ever-evolving landscape.
- Rooftop Gardens: In urban settings, rooftop gardens or green roofs may be incorporated to maximize outdoor space and promote a connection with nature.
- Balconies or Verandas: Even in urban areas, homes often have small outdoor spaces, like balconies or verandas, where residents can get fresh air and hang laundry. Deck, dedicated laundry room
- Tool Shed: Especially because gardening is a popular hobby in Japan, a tool shed will often be needed to store gardening tools, seeds, fertilizer, etc.
While not common in average Japanese homes, these extras are frequently seen in upscale properties:
- Built-in Elevator: Small home elevators are available from most of the design-build firms. They are designed for elderly residents and for people with physical disabilities. Dumb waiters are, however, even more rare.
- Pool: As land is often at a premium in Japan’s largest cities, it is exceedingly rare to find an inground backyard pool. Small-scale plunge pools are, however, more common although still considered to be extravagant.
- Outdoor Shower: Especially near the beach, you might find a home that has an outdoor shower, which can be useful for washing off sand.
- Indoor Zen Garden: Some homes might feature a small indoor Zen garden with rocks, gravel, and miniature plants, allowing residents to experience the tranquility of a garden year-round.
- Automatic Sliding Shoji Screens: Traditional shoji screens might be equipped with modern technology, such as automatic sliding mechanisms controlled by a smartphone app or remote control.
- Hidden Storage Rooms: Secret or hidden rooms and storage spaces, accessed through sliding panels or concealed doors, can provide a sense of mystery and intrigue. Some of these rooms are only 1 meter tall!
- Tatami Flooring with Underfloor Heating: Tatami rooms might incorporate underfloor heating systems to keep the traditional flooring warm and comfortable during colder months.
- Multi-Functional Furniture: Furniture pieces that transform or adapt to different uses, such as a dining table that converts into a billiards table or a sofa that transforms into a guest bed.
- Futuristic Toilets: While advanced toilets are common in Japan, some homes might include toilets with cutting-edge features like integrated bidet functions, air purifiers, and personalized settings.
- Home Entertainment System That Can Be Hidden: Instead of leaving televisions, stereo equipment, and/or a home karaoke system out all the time, they can be hidden at the push of a button with an automatic sliding mechanism controlled by a smartphone app or remote control.
- Vertical Gardens: Living green walls or vertical gardens can be incorporated into the design to add a touch of nature and improve indoor air quality.
- Japanese-Style Bathhouse or Onsen: High-end homes might include a private Japanese-style bathhouse or onsen-inspired spa area with soaking tubs, steam rooms, and relaxation spaces.
- Tea Room with High-Tech Tea Equipment: A traditional tea room could be equipped with modern tea-making equipment and automated systems for precision brewing.
- Automated Tatami Floor Level Adjustment: Innovative homes might have tatami rooms with automated floor level adjustments, allowing residents to customize the room’s layout and use.
- Smart Home Integration: Traditional design elements could be combined with smart home technology, allowing residents to control lighting, temperature, and other systems through voice commands or smartphone apps.
- Interactive Shoji Screen Wall: Shoji screens might incorporate interactive features, such as touch-sensitive surfaces that change opacity or display digital images.
- Eco-Friendly Features: Some Japanese-style homes may emphasize sustainability and eco-friendly features, such as solar panels, rainwater harvesting systems, and energy-efficient appliances.
Behind the Scenes
Innovative features and amenities found behind the scenes in a Japanese home often focus on improving functionality, energy efficiency, and overall living experience. These features may not always be immediately visible, but they contribute to the convenience and comfort of the residents.
- Closets and Storage Solutions: Given the limited space, Japanese homes often incorporate creative storage solutions to maximize usable space. A full-length (height) mirror is often a “must-have” feature of such a room.
- Air Conditioning and Heating: With varying weather conditions throughout the year, many homes have advanced heating and cooling systems to maintain comfort and keep out Japan’s high humidity.
- Security Measures: Security features like intercom systems and keyless entry are becoming more common in modern Japanese homes.
- Home Automation and Smart Control: Japanese homes can be equipped with advanced home automation systems that allow residents to control lighting, heating, cooling, security, and appliances remotely using smartphones or voice commands.
- Energy-Efficient HVAC Systems: High-performance heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems with smart zoning and energy-efficient technologies help maintain comfortable indoor temperatures while minimizing energy consumption.
- Rainwater Harvesting: Some homes incorporate rainwater harvesting systems to collect and store rainwater for non-potable uses such as watering plants, flushing toilets, and laundry.
- Solar Panels: Solar power generation systems on the roof or exterior walls of the home can help generate clean energy and reduce electricity bills.
- Heat Recovery Ventilation (HRV): HRV systems exchange heat between incoming and outgoing air, helping to maintain indoor air quality while recovering heat energy.
- Integrated Waste Separation: Innovative waste separation systems within the kitchen cabinetry make it easy to sort and dispose of different types of waste.
- Compact and Multipurpose Appliances: Space-saving appliances, such as combination washer-dryers or dishwasher-drawer units, maximize utility in compact kitchens.
- Underfloor Heating: Energy-efficient underfloor heating systems provide warmth and comfort during colder months, often using radiant heating technology.
- Automated Storage Solutions: Behind-the-scenes storage solutions, such as automated shelves or concealed cabinets, optimize space utilization and minimize clutter.
- Water-Efficient Fixtures: Water-saving fixtures, including low-flow faucets and dual-flush toilets, help conserve water resources.
- Home Office Integration: Innovative homes may feature dedicated home office spaces with built-in technology for remote work, such as integrated charging ports and cable management.
- Interior Air Quality Control: Advanced air purifiers, humidity control systems, and air quality sensors contribute to a healthier indoor environment.
- Water Filtration and Purification: Integrated water filtration and purification systems ensure access to clean and safe drinking water.
- Security and Surveillance: Smart security systems with motion sensors, cameras, and remote monitoring enhance home safety and provide peace of mind.
- Waste Management Systems: Automated waste disposal systems that transport waste from various rooms to a central collection point help manage waste efficiently.
While the lists above cover a broad range, some readers may observe the absence of the following elements:
Japanese homes typically do not have basements as a common feature. Basements are not commonly found in traditional Japanese residential architecture, and the design and construction of Japanese homes often differ from what is commonly seen in Western countries.
There are a few reasons why basements are not common in Japanese homes:
- Geological and Environmental Factors: Japan is prone to earthquakes and has a complex geological landscape, which can make constructing basements more challenging and potentially less safe in certain areas. Building codes and regulations take these factors into account.
- Limited Space: Many parts of Japan, especially urban and suburban areas, have limited available land for housing. As a result, homes are often built on smaller plots of land, and there may not be sufficient space to accommodate a basement.
- Flooding and Water Table: Some areas of Japan are prone to flooding due to heavy rainfall and the proximity to bodies of water. Constructing basements in flood-prone areas could lead to water-related issues.
- Cultural and Architectural Differences: Traditional Japanese architectural styles do not typically include basements. Instead, Japanese homes often emphasize open and flexible living spaces on the main floor.
While basements are not a common feature in Japanese homes, there may be exceptions, especially in newer or larger homes designed with Western influences or in certain regions where geological and environmental conditions allow for their construction.
However, these cases are relatively rare compared to countries where basements are more commonly included in residential design.
While not totally unheard of, attached garages are rare. In Japan, urban and suburban areas are densely populated, and available land for housing is often limited. As a result, homes are typically built on smaller plots of land, and there may not be enough space for a traditional attached garage.
Parking can be a challenge in many Japanese neighborhoods, especially in urban areas where space is at a premium. Sometimes garage space is, however, located directly under the home either on a dedicated first-floor or in a space that occupies most of the first floor.
Also, some homes may have carports or covered parking areas adjacent to the house. These provide protection from the elements while taking up less space than a full garage.
Japanese homes typically do not have a designated mudroom in the same way that they are commonly found in some Western homes. Mudrooms are more commonly associated with North American homes, where they serve as an entryway space for removing and storing outdoor clothing and footwear, often to keep dirt and mess from being tracked further into the house.
Japanese homes tend to have a different approach to entryways and the removal of outdoor clothing. Instead of a mudroom, Japanese homes often have a genkan (entrance area) that serves a similar purpose. The genkan is a small space located just inside the main entrance where shoes are removed before entering the main living area of the home.
This helps to keep the living spaces clean and separate from outdoor elements. In Japanese culture, there is a strong emphasis on cleanliness and maintaining a clear distinction between indoor and outdoor spaces.
As a result, the genkan plays a crucial role in ensuring that dirt and outdoor elements are not tracked into the living areas of the home.
While a mudroom as commonly seen in Western homes may not be a standard feature in Japanese homes, the concept of having an organized and functional entryway is still important.
Japanese homes may have storage solutions in the genkan area, such as shoe cabinets, coat racks, and space for umbrellas and other outdoor accessories.
No, Japanese kitchens typically do not include garbage disposers, also known as garbage disposal units or waste disposers. Garbage disposers are not commonly found in Japanese homes, and they are not a standard feature in Japanese kitchen designs.
The plumbing systems in many Japanese homes may not be designed to handle the disposal of food waste through a garbage disposer. This could potentially lead to clogs and other plumbing issues. Instead of using garbage disposers, many Japanese households use separate containers or bags to collect food waste, which is then disposed of according to local regulations and guidelines.
This waste is often processed through municipal composting programs or other eco-friendly methods.
The inclusion of the aforementioned amenities often depends on the home’s architectural style (traditional vs. modern), its geographical location, and the preferences of the homeowner.
If you have the opportunity to visit an open house for a new property, it might be fun to use this list as a reference for how many types of amenities you can identify.